Here is a sample IELTS Advantages Disadvantages Essay from IELTS Writing Task 2. It’s on the topic of car taxes, and how they are used to reduce traffic congestion.
Taxes are imposed on private cars by government to solve the traffic problem and also to improve public transport.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages.
Paragraph 1: introduce topic and essay
Paragraph 2: advantage #1
- Main idea: taxes reduce traffic congestion
- Explanation: if it’s more expensive to run a car, people are more likely to use public transport
- Example: congestion charge in London has been successful
Paragraph 3: advantage #2
- Main idea: revenue from taxes can be invested in public transport
- Example: bus fares in my hometown subsidised by car tax
Paragraph 4: disadvantages
- Main idea: many people can’t afford a car, a problem for families
- Explanation: families often prefer to use a car
- Further explanation: car tax places families under financial stress, more dangerous for children
Paragraph 5: summary
Traffic congestion in cities around the world is becoming a major problem because of its impact on commuting times and air quality. One popular way of dealing with this is the imposition of taxes on vehicles, such as car tax, petrol duty and congestion charges. However, while these often have positive effects on reducing the levels of vehicle use, there are also some drawbacks.
One of the main advantages of private vehicle taxation is that it reduces the overall volume of traffic, and therefore congestion. This is because taxes make running cars significantly more expensive and if this is the case, then people will be more likely to use public transport. For example, in London, the congestion charge, a tax which is levied on any vehicles entering the centre of the city, has been remarkably successful in reducing the number of cars and encouraging people to use buses and the underground.
Another key advantage is that vehicle taxation provides governments with money which can be invested in public transport, meaning that it’s effectively being subsidised by car drivers. For instance, even though many bus routes in my hometown don’t make a profit, these buses can operate because fares are paid partly by taxes on private transportation.
However, one of the most significant drawbacks of such taxes is its effect on families. Parents with young children much prefer the convenience of using a car rather than getting on a bus, but if car taxes are high then they might not be able to afford to buy one. It follows that car taxation may place families under greater financial stress and children may be less safe if forced to walk to school.
On the whole though, taxes on private vehicles have major benefits because of the way it reduces congestion and provides state authorities with a valuable source of revenue which can be used to enhance public transit systems. However its impact on people, especially families, must not be underestimated.